You’ve probably asked yourself: how does a black hole form?

Well, to answer this question, it is neccesary to go back in time and learn about how two extraordinary scientists went about formulating the existence of such massive bodies…


Many years ago, scientists Nathan Rosen and Albert Einstein deepened into their collaborative studies and formulated a scientific possibility for the existence of very strange bodies that appeared in space and allowed travelling! For this, they named them: Einstein-Rosen Bridges.


By this time, there was not the sufficient technology as to prove the existence of black-holes. But the fascinating formulation of gravitational waves , provided an open door to this study. It was formulated that, gravitational waves were the consequence of formation of blackholes. This because they  create ripples in the curvature of space-time, to which space and time becomes altered.

“The gravitational waves were detected on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (09:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and MIT.” – LIGO

It is fascinating that after 100 years of prediction, LIGO confirmed Albert Einstein’s theory.

Now, these same wormholes are formed by the death of a star. When a supernova collapses (bigger than the size of our local star-the Sun), blackholes form, for which they are product of a massive death resulting in a phenomenon very astonishing.


Blackholes permit us to travel through time and through far-ends of our galactic cosmos…



Interstellar -the movie

October 7 2016 and October 8- World Space Week/ Day #4 and #5

My topic for today’s celebration of WSW will be the movie Interstellar by Christopher Nolan!! 🙂

Interstellar is without a doubt one of the greatest most spectacular movies I’ve ever seen. 


Interstellar bases itself on a mission to help save humanity.

In the future of our planet Earth, the overpopulation had caused various consequences, one of them being the need of more food sources which would lead to a shortage of food. In the movie, the cause for this shortage of food production is an insect that has gotten to all of the existing crops except corn (which is the last crop available). It is the “blight” that has  occasioned this. The situation is also regarded as “Global Crop Blight”. These insects have entirely exterminated roughly all the food sources.


Blight invading the plant.

By the time that the Interstellar mission sets off into space, the last crops of okre on Earth are dying, leaving only corn as the viable and reliable unique source for food.



Apart from this, a “Dust Bowl” is also happening! These situations have affected and weakened Earth. The fact that corn is the only crop available and severe dust storms are taking place, signals a need to do something for the well-being of Earth.

Dust bowls are massive dust storms that occur due to poor maintenance of prairies, drought and the failure to apply dryland farming methods.

We can link a part of US History to these “Dust Bowls”. During the decade of 1930, dust storms took place and critically damaged the pastures of US and Canada. This period is also evoked as the “Dirthy Thirties”. The cause for these storms was that during the 1920’s, farmers did not know of the severe damages they were causing when they  extensively  plowed the virgin topsoil of the Great plains .


Dust storm approaching at 60 meters per hour.

In search for better lives, families left their homes and hearts towards the cities that were not being affected by the storms. The majority of these families fleed to California in hopes of better conditions and as an escape from the horrible circumstances.

The route that these desperate families used was route 66. Route 66 is a historical highway that connects Chicago to Los Angeles, and was established during the summer of 1926. Hopes for a better life of opportunity was what these farmers deeply desired, but instead their lifestyles didn’t really change for the better since what they encountered when settling in California was the continuation of “The Great Depression”.


Going back to what Interstellar depicts, both: Dust Bowl and termination of crops had led to the search of a new alternative that could save life on Earth. For this, Professor Brand – a brilliant NASA physicist- set a solution. The solution that he depicted was to transport part of Earth’s population (and all of those who were lucky enough that they could be sent to space and had time) in different missions, through a wormhole towards another world & galaxy.

Professor Brand has 3 planets in mind, that would be apt for humankind. He informs the research team that a mysterious blackhole had appeared near Saturn 48 years earlier.According to Dr.Brand, 12 volunteers had adventured through it in order to evaluate the planet’s adaptability as human civilziation’s new home, in a missions called “Lazarus”.

But before this idea sets as definite solution, he sends Cooper (former NASA pilot) and a team of researchers on the spaceship Endurance to investigate the conditions of the planets that lie across the blackhole while he work on PLAN A- determined to create an exodus from Earth. The Endurance also carries 5,000 frozen embryos as Plan B of colonyzing a habitable planet.

Warped space-time exists and they learn and are knowledgeable that in the other specific dimension that subsists crosswise the blackhole, 7 Earth years are equal to 1 hour. The explanation to the major time dilation experienced at the other side, is the blackhole’s proximity to the galaxy of Gargantua.



Yet, in the will of saving humanity , they set off to accomplish it. Professor Brand convinces the research team (astronauts) that the mission is secure . In reality, while years have passed on Earth, Dr.Brand confesses to Murphy (Cooper’s daughter, now scientist) that Plan A had never worked and Plan B was the only solution all along.


  • Plan A: Finding of a new planet -such as Edmund’s planet- capable of sustaining humankind as we know it.
  • Plan B: Prepare 5,000 embryos on a foreign planet for continuation of human-life in the Universe.

As the spaceship’s fuel rapidly decreases, the team chooses to stop in Mann’s planet rather than Edmund’s, since Mann still transmitts. At arrival, Mann assures that despite the ammonia-laden atmosphere, the planet is habitable. While revising the planet, Mann attempts to kill Cooper and since he knew that the mission was a failure, he falsified all of the data with the hope of being rescued. Romilly (researcher and astronaut) is killed by a trap set by Mann, while he runs towards the ranger and spaceship Endurance. 

Brand and Cooper go after the ranger aboard the second lander, while Mann is attempting a very dangerous docking operation (to detach the lander). Cooper warns him about the danger but Mann ignores him, and like that Mann is killed by the attempt , critically damagind the Endurance.Endurance spaceship design.jpg

Upon this situation, and noting the rapid decrease of fuel… Cooper decides to detach Brand from the main ranger. This with the purpose of forming a human colony wirh the 5,000 embryos on Edmund’s planet.

Until this moment, more than 23 years have passed on Earth. Such is the implication of time dilation that when Cooper sits down to watch the videos that his kids have sent him (through the hours) he cries unstoppably and realizes how his kids have become adults and are now possibly older than him. His daughter Murphy feels complete anger against him because he had promissed (when she was 13) that he would be home for when they both had the same age (as when he departured). Sadness and profound melancholy is what Cooper feels, and the wrath that his daughter Murphy expresses is as well heartbreaking.

But, as how life has fallen to be and how it has unfolded… these are the circumstances that result to proceed (happen).

All in all, Cooper finds himself back on Earth reunited with his senescent daughter:Murphy (she already has her own family) and as they watch themselves amazed by how time unfolded itself between them, Murphy asks her dad to leave.

Altogether, Cooper and his Endurance spaceship robot, TARS, leave to rejoin with Brand and her robot,CASE, on Edmund’s habitable planet where she is adapting a new human settlement.

To conclude, Interstellar is the most amazing movie I have yet watched and will remain as a memoire forever in the profoundness of my mind soon set to the vastness of the cosmos.

–Astrophysics Angie (10/8/2016)-3:11am

Welcome back to home Earth🌃


Landed at 5:15 am ET(Eastern time)

Today we Welcome back home Yuri Malenchenko, Tim Kopra and Tim Peake. For their adventurous explorations, and bravery taken in space, they are now home on our panet Earth👽 safe and secure. Much love for them and their families!✨

Having completed their Mission Principia and Expedition 47 in space, today June 18, 2016 at 5:15 they landed on Russian territory as stated.

Back on Earth after 186 days!!! We wish you the best, and lots of love xoxo 😊


-Astrophysics Angie

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