International Science Centre and Science Museum Day

Today is International Science Centre and Science Museum Day. I work at a science centre, but I am also a strong supporter of science museums and science education. Science education is extremely important, especially in days like these when anti-science is gaining a foothold in mainstream thinking. And because of the election of Donald Trump, […]

via International Science Centre and Science Museum Day ‚ÄĒ I Read Encyclopedias for Fun

Interstellar -the movie

October 7 2016 and October 8- World Space Week/ Day #4 and #5

My topic for today’s celebration of WSW will be the movie Interstellar by Christopher Nolan!! ūüôā

Interstellar is without a doubt one of the greatest most spectacular movies I’ve ever seen.¬†


Interstellar bases itself on a mission to help save humanity.

In the future of our planet Earth, the overpopulation had caused various consequences, one of them being the¬†need of more food sources which would lead to a shortage of food. In the movie, the cause for this shortage of food production is an insect that has gotten to all of the existing crops except corn (which is the last crop available). It is the “blight” that has ¬†occasioned this. The situation is also regarded as “Global Crop Blight”. These insects have entirely exterminated roughly all the food sources.


Blight invading the plant.

By the time that the Interstellar mission sets off into space, the last crops of okre on Earth are dying, leaving only corn as the viable and reliable unique source for food.



Apart from this, a “Dust Bowl” is also happening! These situations have affected and weakened Earth. The fact that corn is the only crop available and severe dust storms are taking place, signals a need to do something for the well-being of Earth.

Dust bowls are massive dust storms that occur due to poor maintenance of prairies, drought and the failure to apply dryland farming methods.

We can link a part of US History to these “Dust Bowls”. During the decade of 1930, dust storms¬†took place and¬†critically damaged the pastures of US and Canada. This period is also evoked as the “Dirthy Thirties”. The cause for these storms was that during the 1920’s,¬†farmers did not know of the severe damages they were causing when they ¬†extensively ¬†plowed the virgin topsoil of the Great plains¬†.


Dust storm approaching at 60 meters per hour.

In search for better lives, families left their homes and hearts towards the cities that were not being affected by the storms. The majority of these families fleed to California in hopes of better conditions and as an escape from the horrible circumstances.

The route that these desperate families used was route 66. Route 66 is a historical highway that connects Chicago to Los Angeles, and was established¬†during the summer of¬†1926.¬†Hopes¬†for a better¬†life of opportunity was what these farmers deeply desired, but instead their lifestyles didn’t really change for the better since what they encountered when settling in California was the continuation of “The Great Depression”.


Going back to what Interstellar depicts, both: Dust Bowl and termination of crops had led to the search of a new alternative that could save life on Earth. For this, Professor Brand – a brilliant NASA physicist- set a¬†solution. The solution that he depicted was to transport part of Earth’s population (and all of those who were lucky enough that they could be sent to space and had time) in different missions, through a wormhole towards another world & galaxy.

Professor Brand has 3 planets in mind, that would be apt for humankind.¬†He¬†informs the research team that a mysterious blackhole had¬†appeared near Saturn 48 years earlier.According to Dr.Brand, 12 volunteers had adventured through it in order to evaluate the planet’s adaptability as human civilziation’s new home, in a missions called “Lazarus”.

But before this idea sets as definite solution, he sends Cooper (former NASA pilot) and a team of researchers on the spaceship Endurance to investigate the conditions of the planets that lie across the blackhole while he work on PLAN A- determined to create an exodus from Earth. The Endurance also carries 5,000 frozen embryos as Plan B of colonyzing a habitable planet.

Warped space-time exists¬†and they learn and¬†are knowledgeable that in the other specific dimension that subsists crosswise the blackhole, 7 Earth years are equal to 1 hour.¬†The explanation to the major time dilation experienced at the other side, is the blackhole’s proximity to the galaxy of Gargantua.



Yet, in the will of saving humanity , they set off to¬†accomplish it. Professor Brand convinces the research team (astronauts) that the mission is secure . In reality, while years have passed on Earth, Dr.Brand confesses to Murphy (Cooper’s daughter, now scientist) that Plan A had never worked and Plan B was the only solution all along.


  • Plan A: Finding of a new planet -such as Edmund’s planet- capable of sustaining humankind as we know it.
  • Plan B: Prepare 5,000 embryos on a foreign planet for continuation of human-life in the Universe.

As the spaceship’s fuel rapidly decreases, the team chooses to stop in Mann’s planet rather than Edmund’s, since Mann still transmitts. At arrival, Mann assures that despite the ammonia-laden atmosphere, the planet is habitable. While revising the planet, Mann attempts to kill Cooper and since he knew that the mission was a failure, he falsified all of the data with the hope of being rescued. Romilly (researcher and astronaut) is killed by a trap set by Mann, while he runs towards the ranger and spaceship Endurance.¬†

Brand and Cooper go after the ranger aboard the second lander, while Mann is attempting a very dangerous docking operation (to detach the lander). Cooper warns him about the danger but Mann ignores him, and like that Mann is killed by the attempt , critically damagind the Endurance.Endurance spaceship design.jpg

Upon this situation, and noting the rapid decrease of fuel… Cooper decides to detach Brand from the main ranger. This with the purpose of forming a human colony wirh the 5,000 embryos on¬†Edmund’s planet.

Until this moment, more than 23 years have passed on Earth. Such is the implication of time dilation that when Cooper sits down to watch the videos that his kids have sent him (through the hours) he cries unstoppably and realizes how his kids have become adults and are now possibly older than him. His daughter Murphy feels complete anger against him because he had promissed (when she was 13) that he would be home for when they both had the same age (as when he departured). Sadness and profound melancholy is what Cooper feels, and the wrath that his daughter Murphy expresses is as well heartbreaking.

But, as how life has fallen to be and how it has unfolded…¬†these are the circumstances that result to proceed (happen).

All in all, Cooper finds himself back on Earth reunited with his senescent daughter:Murphy (she already has her own family) and as they watch themselves amazed by how time unfolded itself between them, Murphy asks her dad to leave.

Altogether, Cooper and his Endurance spaceship robot, TARS, leave to rejoin with Brand and her robot,CASE, on Edmund’s habitable planet where she is adapting a new human settlement.

To conclude, Interstellar is the most amazing movie I have yet watched and will remain as a memoire forever in the profoundness of my mind soon set to the vastness of the cosmos.

–Astrophysics Angie (10/8/2016)-3:11am

Sky Muster II Launch!

“Ariane Flight VA231 with¬†

Sky Muster‚ĄĘ II and GSAT-18″

October,4, 2016 –The day Sky Muster II will launch from the Ariane-5 heavy lift launcher.

Sky Muster is a communications satellite set in circular orbit or “geostationary orbit” by Australia’s National Broadband Network (Nbn). The past month, on the week of September,2,2016 this second Sky Muster satellite arrived to French Guiana with the purpose of preparing for its October launch.

The heavy lift launcher Ariane-5 is the rocket in charge of developing this mission.This quest¬†is subsequent to Nbn’s first Sky Muster relay platform, which occurred in September,2015 with the serviceability of an Ariane-5.

There is a creative and more colorful side to the rocketload!¬†Ariane 5’s safeguarding shield¬†for¬†Flight VA231 is illuminated with artwork that complements its set purpose. The decorations are related to Nbn’s network & communications.



With its curiosity and innovation, the Nbn has set an annual competition called “Blast your face Into Space” where more than 700 Australians have the opportunity of winning with their clever and “Out of this world” artwork. Consequently, the art gets plasmed into a mosaic-style image, such that when the time of launch comes, the art is pictured on the satellite!

The principal objective of Sky Muster II is to replenish with extra capacity and data, the Nbn’s sattelite, to further on improve the broadband service of communications throughout Australia. This, because a broadband of telecommunication transmission is neccesary in rural and remote areas of the country. It is important to provide equal assistance in the¬†¬†dissemination of information (Internet) to enhance and better those places that are poor in the senses of cyberspace. An idealized goal is for the satellite to be able to connect 8 million homes and companies by the year 2020.

Taking into consideration the longevity of the mission and the rapid advance of technology, by 2020 Sky Muster II aboard Ariane-5 will most likely be one of the greatest advances in innovation. The imparting of broadband network access to those remote places in Australia and companies marks a step towards equal opportunities, in regards to  data network (Internet) and communications.


“Developing better intercommunication systems provides a greater and fitter society.”

The french company: Arianespace, uses its efficacious Ariane-5 with heavy lift missions, such as this one. For liftoff, the Sky Muster II aboard the rocket (A5) is weighing in at 6,400kg which equal 14.1096 lbs (pounds).

As accompaniment of the Nbn satellite, Sky Muster will orbit with GSAT 18 communication satellites. GSAT 18 is a multipurpose communication satellite for ISRO ( Indian Space & Research Organization), and as part of this mission it will help enable the efficiency and performance of communications in Australia.

An interesting detail about the Sky Muster 2, is that it replaced Japan’s Superbird 8 satellite on the mission of July ¬†12, delayed to July 26 after it was injured during its transport to the launch pad.

japans superbird 8 and gsat 18.jpg

Depicting Japan’s Superbird 8 and GSAT 18 – Image Credit:

Given these points, we can expect improvements on the high-speed Internet technologies, which consequently represents a¬†positive change for the Australian communications system. As always, the heightening of our awareness opens paths to better ways of living and intellectual astuteness. Not only are we capable of elevating the pinnacles of technology for the betterment of society, but the extensiveness of pacifism as well. For we are a sentient civilization, responsiveness (emotions)¬†makes part of our intentions… so we ought to magnify the enclosures of our capacities, to reach out and unfold what our vast Universe enshrouds (or encloses).

-aa (10/4/2016)

CYGNSS to help Humanity

Developed by NASA to detect and study hurricanes.

What’s CYGNSS?

CYGNSS is the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System that will be launching on 11/21/2016 with the aim to improve humanity by detecting giant core storms that could affect us if we didn’t possess this incredible new technology.

Credit: UniversityofMichigan-CYGNSS mission

Launch Window Open at 06:00 EST on 21 Nov 2016

The CYGNSS mission’s principal objective is to improve weather forecasting on Earth by focusing on hurricanes and storms that, if not detected on time, could potentially deteriorate human infrastructures as well as our upper atmosphere.

Since the 1990’s, hurricane forecasting has improved with the introductions of new technologies and the engineering innovations of the century. Despite this, there has been little improvement in the actual accuracy of the forecasting. These are some of the reasons why CYGNSS will be of tremendous help in detecting and being accurate in regards to weather.

The spacecraft is composed of 8 satellites that will ensure the accurate measurement of surf winds revolving in a storm system in the transcourse of tropical cyclones, hurricanes, typhoons, etc…

hurricane and cygnss.gif
Visualization of CYGNSS deployed -Credit: NASA

The University of Michigan is developing the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, and its launch will be from Cape Canaveral, Fl on a Pegasus XL rocket. While in space, it will be probing the inner core of hurricanes to learn about their rapid intensification.

Mission Duration:

  • Designed for 2 years of operation.

The tracking of hurricanes and storms is essential in the provision of adequate warning to the general public. Being able to receive this information from CYGNSS will enable us to take the necessary measures to predict our weather.

With CYGNSS, we will be able to create even more advanced technologies here on Earth to protect us from storms so it will not only help advance our methods of informing the public, but will also aid in the formulation of cutting-edge technical and industrial knowledge.

scientists at NASA work on CYGNSS.jpg
Scientists/Engineers at NASA work on CYGNSS. Credit- NASA

In the image above, we can observe engineers at NASA operating the 8 micro-satellites aboard the mission. Here, we see that the satellites are set on the deployment module for vibration testing – this is at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas.

Vibration testing is very important in spacial missions, and is the last verification to be approved.

vibration testing on cygnss.jpg

CYGNSS during Vibration testing. Credit-NASA


One of the main reasons why vibration testing is done is to ensure the efficiency and correct functionality of the mission.

The CYGNSS mission will be of help for humanity and its long term stay on our planet Earth will enhance our understanding of storm systems since it will identify and study, in depth, the winds and the inner core of hurricanes and storms.

“We reach for new heights and reveal the unknown for the benefit of humankind.”
–National Aeronautics and Space Administration

nasa stars.gif

Credit: NASA


Image Credit: NASA forecast

For furthering the exploration in humankind’s perspectives, NASA strives to create the innovations of our next generations. The day will come, when we have achieved as a whole, the wisdom and advanced knowledge to live contently and without human distractions. As our visionaries, scientists, engineers, thinkers, innovators, and billionaires set the parameters of their idealized future, we grow as a species and magnify our knowledge.

Astronaut during an EVA (Extravehicular activity or spacewalk).
Credit: NASA

–aa (10/2/2016)

The Marvelous world of Interstellar Exploration that awaits

Elon Musk has been an inspiration. His story is truly unique, and the incredible projects that he has taken upon have revolutionized our perspectives.

Yesterday afternoon (9/27/2016) at the International Astronautical Congress in Mexico, Elon made a speech about “Making humans a Multiplanetary species”. Elon spoke about his plans on paving the path to MARS and how the mission can succeed.¬†The video shown below shows the “Interplanetary Transport System” which is now being developed and constructed by SpaceX with Elon Musk as its primary president.

The featured “ITS” depicts a reusable rocket (reusable like airplanes) , that functions with solar arrays and its primary mission & purpose is to send humans to the red planet. Elon states that¬†the goal would be to send 100 humans on each trip, being 1 million by the year 2060. This is an immense advance in regards to the future of space exploration and the expanding of our knowledge.

The process that ITS would go through from launch, deploy, to arrival is the following:

  • Liftoff from Cape Canaveral’s 39 A Launch Pad (launch pad¬†of Apollo XI)
  • Travel at Maximum Aerodynamic Pressure
  • Stage Separation
  • Spaceship¬†stabilizes to parking orbit – Booster heads to Earth
  • Booster landing on droneship
  • Propellant tanker loaded on to booster
  • Launch of booster -Refueling of spaceship in orbit
  • Tanker returns to Earth
  • Spaceship officially departs for Mars
  • Solar arrays deploy (200 kW of power)
  • 8 month journey
  • MARS entry

SpaceX has recently conducted a test of the booster that could power the System, called the Raptor. Raptor would be powered by liquid methane and oxygen, consequently it would be replenished on Mars and return to Earth.


Credit: Space X

The revelation of the plan to go to Mars could be the beginning of a “race to Mars” but as Elon has made plans and studied the success and points of such journey, the greater possibility currently resides in the exploration of Mars from our part of the globe, while directed by Elon (SpaceX) and NASA.


The science of Astrophysics takes part in this astonishing prospetive journey. Being of wide interest for all, it broadcasts each angle of our set galaxy and helps us understand what is far beyond, it is as revelation for what our eyes can observe.

Astrophysics is one of the sciences that deals with Space, and it is an amazing field of study. From researching and studying the field we are able to widen the visions that our mind is able to perceive, and look at what is far out the edges of our origins.

A deep rooted science that remains contemplated through the ages. For it is a duty to apprehend and evolution, Astrophysics presents many solutions.It comes to be a united topic that mostly all of us can refer to. The¬†science of what we¬†think ¬†when simply looking at the night sky. “Look at the sky above you, not at your feet”-Stephen Hawkings

<< With it all¬†a great journey is that which awaits, with a vast collection of wisdom in which we will endeavor. For farout exploration and interplanetary accesses, we strive to expand the barriers of Earth’s orbit while remaining in the globe that makes possible our outreach to the cosmos. >>

–Astrophysics Angie (9/28/2016)


25 Years of the Web

8/23/2016 ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬† ¬†¬†Imagine…

What was happening 25 years ago today?¬† Well, many situations and experiences were happening definetely! And one of those thousands of proposals, ideas, trips, lectures, etc… performed that day in the world,changed the course of humanity and focus. This towards a technological future and advanced society.

This amazing and absolutely phenomenal vision was set to be by Tim Berner Lee, the British researcher in Switzerland with an impactful perspective.

The project proposed on this day, 25 years ago is denominated: The World Wide Web (www) . From this tremendously innovating and advanced idea, all of us with access to the web became pioneers and explorers of our local home planet Earth. It is astonishing that a mind created such a relevant dispositive that has revolutionized our knowledge nowadays and transformed the perspectives of each person intended to learn and transcend.

Websites have given us the ability and the advantage to learn and discuss topics/material,etc… with people from around the world. Obtaining information from sources external to the one’s we have had been the main objective by Tim of its creation, and of course, with Internet and the web, we now seek for a variety of topics through online portals that take us to farends of the Earth. Amazing and developed¬†portals that take¬†us to the vastness of infinity, and the limits of the human-mind.

With websites it is possible to live our lives from sitting down and opening the screen to a virtual reality, in fact chances are that we are subject to different kinds of physical tasks throughout a day and to virtual reality communication, where this type of interaction is essential for rapid responses and developments, the access to it is of excellent value and needed in an everyday flowing & changing society.

Happy Day to all Internauts out there! It is a privilege for you, and for me to be able to share this information and endless more, through here , right now…

Thankyou for today’s “WWW”, Tim Berner Lee.


–aa (posted at 11:36 pm EDT, before 12- today is Internaut Day) tim berner lee- internaut.jpg