The Mars Journey – ORION Generation

What first steps will we take to explore the Red planet?

Many questions, excitement, eagerness, and most importantly awareness for the importance of exploration arise when thinking about the next step of discovery.


We are currently living in one of the most important times in history. NASA and the advancement of technology and space exploration are still relatively new. We are the first humans to be part of this new and exciting endeavor, of Orion. Being one of the first, we will serve as an inspirational part of history for all of the generations that follow, and when they look back on our activities, they will be able to improve upon them just as we are doing with the first human mission to outer space.

The brave and courageous humans, who have whole-heartedly participated in the expansion of space- exploration are heroes and pioneers of the unknown and unexplored.

Various space agencies have united with NASA, and have been working and preparing for our first Mars crew mission to be safe for launch. And Orion is our next step towards this monumental approach.

Orion is NASA’s deep space exploration spacecraft, and it has big plans.

NASA has been working on the SLS- Space Launch System since 2011, and it refers to a new form of launch system, bigger than any spacecraft ever. The SLS, when finished, will be tested with Orion aboard, which will be “Exploration Mission 1.” EM-1 will last approximately 25 days and will go on a large orbit around the moon. Upon successful re-entry to home planet Earth, Orion will follow with Exploration Mission 2, which this time will be harboring 4 astronauts. This will be the FIRST time humans travel beyond and farther than ever before.

This is a very exciting moment for history and a remarkable step towards acquisition of knowledge, discovery, and unification of our minds with the vast infinity of cosmic expansion.

Orion is one of the many spacecrafts that will advance our universal understanding, and it is a super exciting moment for our century, as we will be the FIRST to explore Mars as “the Mars generation.” One step forward towards attaining a major achievement for all of humanity can truly allow us to realize the importance of each of our actions. Everything that we do contributes to something, and like this, everyone can help us on our journey to Mars.

Everyone is needed, wanted and valued. YOU are needed in the path for the journey, and from the place you are in right now, you can help make this fantastic success a reality as soon as possible.

When we follow our purpose and life project, risking our lives becomes a crucial part of the effort. Driven by passion, discipline, effort, Mars is a milestone marking the possibilities of the vast universal cosmos that awaits the next generations. We will serve as inspirations for the upcoming space-travelers and everything we continue doing to attain this achievement will undoubtedly matter.

As space agencies unite with a contiguous goal in mind, minds unify with the purpose of scientific understanding… and you too can become a part of this grandiosity.

To check out NASA’s Journey to Mars:

To check out Space X – support! :


Trappist-1 has been discovered!

Trappist-1 is a dwarf star system that possesses 7 Earth sized planets, in which 3 of them are in the Habitable zone due to their approximately same distance temperatures of the sun. The other 4 planets are too hot or too cold to even hospice or harbor life as we know it…



Trappist system.jpg

This is an astounding discovery as each day we improve upon technology in searching for Earth-like planets such as these. Now, the scientists, engineers and every single person that engages in the exploration, expansion of these discoveries, makes part of the pioneers  that took upon this travel, furthering our knowledge.



John F. Kennedy- Moon Exploration

Towards exploration – Moon Speech

A young president inspires dreams of exploration.

>For knowledge in the wide and vast expanses of the unknown.

President Kennedy’s Speech at Rice University–>

“The greater our knowledge increases, the greater our ignorance unfolds. Despite the striking fact that most of the scientists the world has ever known are alive and working today, despite the fact that this nation’s own scientific manpower is doubling every 12 years in a rate of growth more than three times that of our population as a whole, despite that, the vast stretches of the unknown and the unanswered and the unfinished still far outstrip our collective comprehension.

No man can fully grasp how far and how fast we have come, but condense, if you will, the 50,000 years of man’s recorded history in a time span of but a half-century. Stated in these terms, we know very little about the first 40 years, except at the end of them advanced man had learned to use the skins of animals to cover them.

Then about 10 years ago, under this standard, man emerged from his caves to construct other kinds of shelter. Only five years ago man learned to write and use a cart with wheels. Christianity began less than 2 years ago. The printing press came this year, and then less than 2 months ago,during this whole 50 year span of human history, the steam engine provided a new source of power. Last month, electric lights and telephones and automobiles and airplanes became available.

Only last week did we develop penicillin and television and nuclear power, and now if America’s new spacecraft succeeds in reaching Venus, we will have literally reached the stars before midnight.


If this capsule history of our progress teaches us anything, it is that man, in his quest for knowledge and progress, is determined and cannot be deterred. The exploration of space will go ahead, whether we join in it or not, and it is one of the great adventures of all time, and no nation which expects to be the leader of other nations can expect to stay behind in the race for space.

✨For the eyes of the world now look into space, to the moon and the planets beyond, and we have vowed that we shall not see it governed by a hostile flag of conquest, but by a banner of freedom and peace. We have vowed that we shall not see space filled with weapons of mass destruction, but with instruments of knowledge and understanding. ✨

Yet the vows of this nation can only be fulfilled if we in this nation are first, and, therefore, we intend to be FIRST.

*Attached is a scene from “Hidden Figures” the movie, which relates to what John F. said in his speech about being the First.*

In short, our leadership in science and in industry, our hopes for peace and security, our obligations to ourselves as well as others, all require us to put forth the effort needed to solve these mysteries for the good of all men, and to become the world’s leading space-faring nation.

President John F.  Kennedy -Moon Speech

We set sail, on this new sea because there is knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. For space science, like nuclear science and all technology, has no conscience of its own. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of preeminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war.

But why, some say, the moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain? Why does Rice play Texas?

We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, and one we intend to win, and the others, too.”

-John F. Kennedy

We see the courage, wisdom, capability that one of our past young presidents set for our country to pursue. Now that 54 years have gone by since the moment he claimed these powerful and envisioning words, we may continue to pursue and work towards the advancement of our knowledge of the unknown. With the capability of extraordinary men and women that are developing in our country, we, united, can obtain the unimaginable. ✨

TIROS craft

TIROS began in a continous coverage of Earth’s weather in 1962, providing the first accurate weather forecasts based on coverage from space.

The Tiros2 craft-Television and Infrared Observation Satellite- was a spin stabilized spacecraft designed to examine experimental television mechanics and infrared equipment. Its composition was of:

  • form of 18 sided right prism
  • 107 cm in diameter and 56 cm high
  • top and sides of spacecraft covered in approx. 9000 1- by 2-cm silicon solar cells
  • two independent television camera subsystems for taking cloudcover pictures
  • cloudcover earth picture.jpg

    *Cloud-cover Space pictures.*

  • five channel medium resolution scanning radiometer
  • two channel non-scanning low-resolution radiometer for measuring radiation from Earth and its atmosphere




You’ve probably asked yourself: how does a black hole form?

Well, to answer this question, it is neccesary to go back in time and learn about how two extraordinary scientists went about formulating the existence of such massive bodies…


Many years ago, scientists Nathan Rosen and Albert Einstein deepened into their collaborative studies and formulated a scientific possibility for the existence of very strange bodies that appeared in space and allowed travelling! For this, they named them: Einstein-Rosen Bridges.


By this time, there was not the sufficient technology as to prove the existence of black-holes. But the fascinating formulation of gravitational waves , provided an open door to this study. It was formulated that, gravitational waves were the consequence of formation of blackholes. This because they  create ripples in the curvature of space-time, to which space and time becomes altered.

“The gravitational waves were detected on September 14, 2015 at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (09:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and MIT.” – LIGO

It is fascinating that after 100 years of prediction, LIGO confirmed Albert Einstein’s theory.

Now, these same wormholes are formed by the death of a star. When a supernova collapses (bigger than the size of our local star-the Sun), blackholes form, for which they are product of a massive death resulting in a phenomenon very astonishing.


Blackholes permit us to travel through time and through far-ends of our galactic cosmos…



Interstellar -the movie

October 7 2016 and October 8- World Space Week/ Day #4 and #5

My topic for today’s celebration of WSW will be the movie Interstellar by Christopher Nolan!! 🙂

Interstellar is without a doubt one of the greatest most spectacular movies I’ve ever seen. 


Interstellar bases itself on a mission to help save humanity.

In the future of our planet Earth, the overpopulation had caused various consequences, one of them being the need of more food sources which would lead to a shortage of food. In the movie, the cause for this shortage of food production is an insect that has gotten to all of the existing crops except corn (which is the last crop available). It is the “blight” that has  occasioned this. The situation is also regarded as “Global Crop Blight”. These insects have entirely exterminated roughly all the food sources.


Blight invading the plant.

By the time that the Interstellar mission sets off into space, the last crops of okre on Earth are dying, leaving only corn as the viable and reliable unique source for food.



Apart from this, a “Dust Bowl” is also happening! These situations have affected and weakened Earth. The fact that corn is the only crop available and severe dust storms are taking place, signals a need to do something for the well-being of Earth.

Dust bowls are massive dust storms that occur due to poor maintenance of prairies, drought and the failure to apply dryland farming methods.

We can link a part of US History to these “Dust Bowls”. During the decade of 1930, dust storms took place and critically damaged the pastures of US and Canada. This period is also evoked as the “Dirthy Thirties”. The cause for these storms was that during the 1920’s, farmers did not know of the severe damages they were causing when they  extensively  plowed the virgin topsoil of the Great plains .


Dust storm approaching at 60 meters per hour.

In search for better lives, families left their homes and hearts towards the cities that were not being affected by the storms. The majority of these families fleed to California in hopes of better conditions and as an escape from the horrible circumstances.

The route that these desperate families used was route 66. Route 66 is a historical highway that connects Chicago to Los Angeles, and was established during the summer of 1926. Hopes for a better life of opportunity was what these farmers deeply desired, but instead their lifestyles didn’t really change for the better since what they encountered when settling in California was the continuation of “The Great Depression”.


Going back to what Interstellar depicts, both: Dust Bowl and termination of crops had led to the search of a new alternative that could save life on Earth. For this, Professor Brand – a brilliant NASA physicist- set a solution. The solution that he depicted was to transport part of Earth’s population (and all of those who were lucky enough that they could be sent to space and had time) in different missions, through a wormhole towards another world & galaxy.

Professor Brand has 3 planets in mind, that would be apt for humankind. He informs the research team that a mysterious blackhole had appeared near Saturn 48 years earlier.According to Dr.Brand, 12 volunteers had adventured through it in order to evaluate the planet’s adaptability as human civilziation’s new home, in a missions called “Lazarus”.

But before this idea sets as definite solution, he sends Cooper (former NASA pilot) and a team of researchers on the spaceship Endurance to investigate the conditions of the planets that lie across the blackhole while he work on PLAN A- determined to create an exodus from Earth. The Endurance also carries 5,000 frozen embryos as Plan B of colonyzing a habitable planet.

Warped space-time exists and they learn and are knowledgeable that in the other specific dimension that subsists crosswise the blackhole, 7 Earth years are equal to 1 hour. The explanation to the major time dilation experienced at the other side, is the blackhole’s proximity to the galaxy of Gargantua.



Yet, in the will of saving humanity , they set off to accomplish it. Professor Brand convinces the research team (astronauts) that the mission is secure . In reality, while years have passed on Earth, Dr.Brand confesses to Murphy (Cooper’s daughter, now scientist) that Plan A had never worked and Plan B was the only solution all along.


  • Plan A: Finding of a new planet -such as Edmund’s planet- capable of sustaining humankind as we know it.
  • Plan B: Prepare 5,000 embryos on a foreign planet for continuation of human-life in the Universe.

As the spaceship’s fuel rapidly decreases, the team chooses to stop in Mann’s planet rather than Edmund’s, since Mann still transmitts. At arrival, Mann assures that despite the ammonia-laden atmosphere, the planet is habitable. While revising the planet, Mann attempts to kill Cooper and since he knew that the mission was a failure, he falsified all of the data with the hope of being rescued. Romilly (researcher and astronaut) is killed by a trap set by Mann, while he runs towards the ranger and spaceship Endurance. 

Brand and Cooper go after the ranger aboard the second lander, while Mann is attempting a very dangerous docking operation (to detach the lander). Cooper warns him about the danger but Mann ignores him, and like that Mann is killed by the attempt , critically damagind the Endurance.Endurance spaceship design.jpg

Upon this situation, and noting the rapid decrease of fuel… Cooper decides to detach Brand from the main ranger. This with the purpose of forming a human colony wirh the 5,000 embryos on Edmund’s planet.

Until this moment, more than 23 years have passed on Earth. Such is the implication of time dilation that when Cooper sits down to watch the videos that his kids have sent him (through the hours) he cries unstoppably and realizes how his kids have become adults and are now possibly older than him. His daughter Murphy feels complete anger against him because he had promissed (when she was 13) that he would be home for when they both had the same age (as when he departured). Sadness and profound melancholy is what Cooper feels, and the wrath that his daughter Murphy expresses is as well heartbreaking.

But, as how life has fallen to be and how it has unfolded… these are the circumstances that result to proceed (happen).

All in all, Cooper finds himself back on Earth reunited with his senescent daughter:Murphy (she already has her own family) and as they watch themselves amazed by how time unfolded itself between them, Murphy asks her dad to leave.

Altogether, Cooper and his Endurance spaceship robot, TARS, leave to rejoin with Brand and her robot,CASE, on Edmund’s habitable planet where she is adapting a new human settlement.

To conclude, Interstellar is the most amazing movie I have yet watched and will remain as a memoire forever in the profoundness of my mind soon set to the vastness of the cosmos.

–Astrophysics Angie (10/8/2016)-3:11am